Session 26

Language notes

In this section we will summarise the short form cryno verb patterns, and compare these with the equivalent tenses of bod which are used to construct long form cwmpasog tenses.

Present/future short form verbs use the pattern:
     Dysgaf i                      - I will learn
     Dysgai di                    - you will learn  (familiar singular)
     Dysgiff/-ith e/o/hi       - he/she will learn
     Dysgwn ni                  - we will learn
     Dysgwch chi              - you will learn  (formal singular, plural)
     Dysgan nhw               - they will learn

Present or future time is determined from the context of the sentence: 
     Cerddaf ar hyd glan yr afon bob bore.
             I walk along the river bank every morning.
     Ymunwn ni 'r clwb chwaraeon y flwyddyn nesaf. 
             We will join the sports club next year.
Notice that the third person singular is used with nouns, even if these are plural:  
      Dysgiff y plant Sbaeneg eleni. 
              The children will learn Spanish this year.

The equivalent tense of bod is:
      Byddaf i                  - I will  be
      Byddi di                  - You will be   (familiar singular)
      Bydd e/o/hi             - He/she/it will be
      Byddwn ni              - We will be
      Byddwch chi          - You will be   (formal singular, plural)
      Byddan nhw           - They will be
This is only used for actions occurring in the future:
      Byddan nhw'n agor y bwyty fis nesaf.
              They will be opening the restaurant next month.
One of the alternative present tenses of bod is used for actions occurring at the present time:
       Mae'r siop yn gwerthu llyfrau ail-law.
              The shop sells second-hand books.
       Caergybi yw'r dref fwyaf yn Ynys Mn.
              Holyhead is the largest town in Anglesey.   
       Ffermio defaid sy'n prif weithgaredd amaethyddol.
              Sheep farming is the main agricultural activity.

Past tense short form verbs use the pattern:
      Dringes / dringais i        - I climbed 
      Dringest/ dringaist ti      - you climbed    (familiar singular)
      Dringodd e/o/hi              - he/she climbed 
      Dringon ni                      - we climbed 
      Dringoch chi                  - you climbed     (formal singular, plural)
      Dringon nhw                  - they climbed 

The past tense is used to describe an action taking place at a particular time in the past:
       Symudodd y ffermwr y gwartheg i'r beudy.
               The farmer moved the cattle to the cowshed.
Where an action continued for an extended period, the imperfect tense is used instead:
       Roedden ni'n byw mewn hen fwthyn ger yr harbwr.
              We lived in an old cottage by the harbour.

The equivalent past tense of bod is:
        Bues i                       -  I was     
        Buest ti                     -  you were           (familiar singular)
        Buodd e/o/hi             -  he/she was
        Buon ni                     -  we were
        Buoch chi                 -  you were           (formal singular, plural)
        Buon nhw                 - they were
The past tense of bod is used for an action occurring at one particular time in the past:
          Bues i yn ail yn y gystadleuaeth.
                I was runner up in the competition.
          Buodd e farw yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf.
                He died in the First World War.          

Conditional short form verbs use the pattern:
      Gallwn i                 - I would be able to
      Gallet ti                  - you would be able to      (familiar singular)
      Gallai fe/fo/hi         - he/she would be able to
      Gallen ni                - we would be able to
      Gallech chi            - you would be able to      (formal singular, plural)
      Gallen nhw            - they would be able to

This tense is used where there is doubt about an action taking place:
       Prynen ni gi pe bai gennyn ni dŷ mwy.
                We would buy a dog if we had a bigger house.
       Hoffen nhw fynd ar daith i Awstralia.
                They would like to go on a trip to Australia.
        Dylech chi chwilio am swydd well.
                You should look for a better job.

There are several alternatives for the conditional tense of bod:
    Byddwn i             Baswn i               - I would
    Byddet ti              Baset ti               - you would      (familiar singular)
    Byddai fe/fo/hi    Basai fe/fo/hi       - he/she would
    Bydden ni            Basen ni              - we would
    Byddech chi        Basech chi          - you would      (formal singular, plural)
    Bydden nhw        Basen nhw          - they would
These can be used to produce long form conditional tenses:
       Byddai fe'n mynd i'r gwely pe bai wedi blino.
              He would go to bed if he was tired.
       Byddwn i'n paentio'r gegin pe bai gen i fwy o amser.
              I would paint the kitchen if I had more time.

The commonly used verbs cael (have), mynd (go), dod (come) and gwneud (do) generally have irregular short form tenses:
Present/future tense (I will have, you will have, etc.):   
           cael                  mynd            dod                 gwneud
           caf i                 af i                dof i               gwnaf i
           cei di               ei di              doi di             gwnei di
           caiff e/o/hi      aiff e/o/hi      daw e/o/hi     gwnaiff e/o/hi 
           cawn ni           awn ni          down ni         gwnawn ni
           cewch chi       ewch chi      dewch chi     gwnewch chi
           cn nhw          n nhw         dn nhw       gwnn nhw

Past tense (I had, you had, etc.): 
           cael                  mynd               dod                   gwneud
           ces i                 es i                 des i                 gwnes i
           cest di              est ti              dest di              gwnest di
           cafodd e/o/hi   aeth e/o/hi     daeth e/o/hi     gwnaeth e/o/hi
           cawson ni        aethon ni       daethon ni       gwnaethon ni 
           cawsoch chi    aethoch chi   daethoch chi   gwnaethoch chi
           cawson nhw    aethon nhw   daethon nhw   gwnaethon nhw
Conditional tense (I would have, you would have, etc.): 
           cael                    mynd             dod                    gwneud
           cawn i                awn i            deuwn i             gwnawn i
           cait di                 ait di            deuit di              gwnait di
           ci e/o/hi            i e/o/hi       deuai e/o//hi      gwni e/o/hi
           caen ni               aen ni          deuen ni            gwnaen ni
           caech chi           aech chi      deuech              gwnaech chi
           caent nhw          aent nhw     deuent nhw      gwnaent nhw


Computer applications such as  'Google Translate' and the grammar checker 'Cysill' can be a great help in applying treigladau correctly.  However, it may sometimes be necessary to write a document in Welsh by hand with the help of only a pocket dictionary.  In this case, a strategy for checking treigladau is needed. The sequence shown below might be used as a check list:

1. Treigladau related to prepositions 
treiglad meddal is produced by am, ar, at, dros, trwy, dan, wrth, o, i, heb, tan, gan:  
        Aethon ni dros gae a thrwy goedwig i bentref
               We went over a field and through a forest to a village.

A treiglad meddal is applied to a posessed item indicated by gan:
        Mae gan y myfyriwr gasgliad mawr o lyfrau.
               The student has a large collection of books.

treiglad  trwynol is produced by yn ('in').
     Mae'r digwyddiad yng Nghanolfan y Mileniwm yng Nghaerdydd.
               The event is in the Millenium Centre in Cardiff.

A treiglad meddal may be required with compound prepositions, depending on the second preposition of the pair:
     Gwnaethon ni redeg ar draws traeth o dan glogwyn.
              We ran across a beach underneath a cliff. 

A treiglad llaes is applied after , gyda, tua:
      Ar l tua phum munud gadawon ni, gyda chyfarwyddiadau
      i ddod thocynnau.
             After about five minutes we left, with instructions to bring tickets.

2. Treigladau related to nouns and adjectives
A treiglad meddal is applied to a feminine singular noun after the article y ('the'), and a treiglad meddal is applied to each adjective or adjectival noun following a feminine singular noun:
       Gwnaethon ni groesi'r bont reilffordd fawr rydlyd.
               We crossed the large rusty railway bridge.

A treiglad meddal is applied to a noun preceded by an adjective:
     Roedd yr hen dref yn brif ganolfan ar gyfer gwahanol ddiwydiannau.
               The old town was a main centre for different industries.
     Mae'r heddlu'n stopio unrhyw gerddwyr.
               The police are stopping any pedestrians.
3.  Treigladau related to possessive pronouns
A treglad trwynol is applied after fy ('my'):
      Gwnaeth e cyfarfod fy nhad a fy mrawd yn y cyngerdd.
               He met my father and my brother at the concert.

A treiglad meddal is applied after dy ('your' familiar) 
      Mae lle yn y garej i dy gar a dy feic modur.
                There is room in the garage for your car and your motorbike.

A treiglad meddal is applied after ei ('his/its' referring to a masculine noun)
      Dychwelodd John i'w gyda'i wraig.
               John returned to his house with his wife.

A treiglad llaes is applied after ei ('her/its' referring to a feminine noun)
       Lansiodd Jane ei chwch ar ei thraeth agosaf.
               Jane launched her boat at her nearest beach.

4.  Treigladau related to verbs
A treiglad meddal is applied after the particle fe (South Wales) or mi (North Wales) which can proceed the verb to indicate a positive statement:
      Fe wahoddodd y rheolwr y staff i gyfarfod.
      Mi wahoddodd y rheolwr y staff i gyfarfod.
              The manager invited the staff to a meeting.
A treiglad meddal is applied to a verb beginning a question:
     Ddringoch chi'r Wyddfa yn ystod eich ymweliad Chymru? 
                Did you climb Snowdon during your visit to Wales?        
      brynwch chi fwyd yn y dref y prynhawn yma?
                Will you buy food in town this afternoon?
The treiglad meddal is applied whether or not the interrogative marker 'a' is present.

A mixed treiglad llaes/meddal is applied to a negative verb beginning a sentence.  The treiglad llaes is applied where possible, and the treiglad meddal in other cases: 
      Ni chanodd e'r anthem genedlaethol.
      Chanodd e mo'r anthem genedlaethol.
              He did not sing the national anthem.
      Ni ofynnais ynglŷn 'r gwaith cartref.  
      Ofynnais i ddim ynglŷn 'r gwaith cartref.
               I did not ask about the homework.
The mixed treiglad llaes/meddal is applied with any of the possible negative verb patterns:  ni...,,  ...ddim.

5. Treigladau related to conjunctions
A treiglad llaes is applied after the conjunction a (and):
     Teithion ni ar awyren a chwch a thrn.
               We travelled on a plane and a boat and a train. 

A treiglad meddal is applied after the conjunction neu (or):
     Mae'r cwmni wedi'i leoli yn Abertawe neu Gaerdydd.
               The company is based in Swansea or Cardiff.

A treiglad meddal is applied after pan (when), tan (until):
    Roedden ni'n cerdded trwy'r pentref pan welon ni'r hysbysiad.
            We were walking through the village when we saw the notice.
    Dylech chi aros tan gaiff y car ei drwsio.
            You should wait until the car is repaired.

6.  Treigladau related to numbers
A treiglad meddal is applied to the numbers dau and dwy (two) after the 
article y:
    Gofalon ni am y ddau gi a'r ddwy gath.
        We looked after the two dogs and the two cats.

A treiglad meddal is applied after dau and dwy:
    Fe wnaethon ni brynu dwy frechdan a dwy gacen.
             We bought two sandwiches and two cakes.
    Gwnaethoch chi brynu dau lyfr a dau fap.   
             You bought two books and two maps.

A treiglad llaes is applied after the number tri (three) referring to a masculine noun:
     Mae tri phentref pysgota a thri thraeth ar hyd yr arfordir.
           There are three fishing villages and three beaches along coast.

A treiglad meddal is applied to feminine nouns following an ordinal number:
     Dyma'r drydedd ddinas a'r bumed dref i ni ymweld hi.
            This is the third city and the fifth town that we have visited.
     Adeiladwyd y castell yn ystod y ddeuddegfed ganrif.
            The castle was built during the twelfth century.       

7.  Treigladau related to identifying particular items
A treiglad meddal is applied after dyma ('here is...'), dyna ('there is') and dacw (over there is...'):
      Dyma lyfr a dyna fap a fydd yn ddefnyddiol.
           Here is a book and there is a map that will be useful.

A treiglad meddal is applied after the adverb yna ('there...'):
      Mae yna lawer o hen ffatroedd o gwmpas y dref.
            There are a lot of old factories around the town.
      Mae yna reswm da i gwyno.
            There is a good reason to complain.

8.  Treigladau related to sentence structure
The most important rule is that a treiglad meddal follows the subject of a sentence:
      Casglodd yr elusen roddion am eu gwaith dramor.
               The charity collected donations for their work abroad. 
     Talodd y rheolwr gydweithiwr i drefnu'r digwyddiad. 
               The manager paid a colleague to organise the event.

In some cases the subject may be unwritten, but a treiglad meddal is still applied immediately after the point where it would appear:
        Datglodd ddrws a dringais risiau i'r to.
               He unlocked a door and I climbed stairs to the roof.
        Stopiwch weiddi ar y ci!
               Stop shouting at the dog!

A treiglad meddal is applied when the normal order of the sentence is changed by inserting a time, place or reason clause within the verb pattern:
       Roeddwn i eisiau, yn gynnar y bore yma, fynd am dro.
              I wanted, early this morning, to go for a walk.
      Gallwn ni, ar waelod yr ardd, wneud pwll.
              We can, at the bottom of the garden, make a pond.
      Rhaid i chi, er mwyn osgoi problemau, gynllunio'r gwaith yn ofalus.
             You must, to avoid problems, plan the work carefully.

A treiglad meddal is applied to a noun or adjective following yn (traethiadol):
      Mae hi'n ddarlithydd ac mae hi'n mwynhau ei gwaith, sydd yn bwysig.
               She is a lecturer and she enjoys her work, which is important. 
Notice that a treiglad is not applied to a verb noun following yn (traethiadol), as with mwynhau in this example.

A treiglad meddal is applied following the preposition i and an inserted phrase:
      Gofynnais iddo ddweud wrth y rheolwr.
             I asked him to tell the manager.
      Hoffai fe, i fod yn agos at ei swyddfa, brynu fflat yn y ddinas.
            He would like, to be close to his office, to buy a flat in the city.
      Rhaid i'r gweithwyr wisgo hetiau caled ar y safle.
            The workers must wear hard hats on the site.        

A treiglad meddal is applied following a meaning who, which, that:
     Gareth Jones a gyfansoddodd y gerddoriaeth fydd yn arwain y cr.
            Gareth Jones who composed the music will be conducting the choir.

9. Treigladau related to expressions of time
A treiglad meddal is applied for time clauses indicating when an action occurs.
     Fe symudon ni i Fangor ddeuddeg mis yn l.
              We moved to Bangor twelve months ago.
     Gallaf gwrdd chi ddydd Llun neu ddydd Mawrth.
             I can meet you on Monday or on Tuesday. 


This list by no means covers all possible situations in which treigladau should be applied, and other special cases will be found.  However, it is hoped that the majority of occurrences of treigladau are covered by the points above.


We present a further collection of interesting Welsh idiomatic phrases:

   Talodd y dyn busnes gildwrn i'r cynghorydd i ennill y contract.
   The businessman paid a bribe to the councellor to win the contract.

colli ei phenlose her temper
    Collodd y teithiwr ei ben ar l aros awr am y trn.
    The passenger lost his temper after waiting an hour for the train.

cyfeiriad gwneudfalse address
  Rhoddodd y dyn gyfeiriad gwneud pan gafodd ei stopio gan yr heddlu.
  The man gave a false address when he was stopped by the police.

gafael yn -  get going with, get to grips with
     Y penwythnos diwethaf roedden ni'n gafael yn clirio'r ardd.
     Last weekend we got to grips with clearing the garden.

pur debygquite likely
     Mae'n pur debyg y bydd llifogydd difrifol y gaeaf hwn.
     It is quite likely that there will be serious floods this winter. 

drachefn a throtime and time again
    Rwyf wedi dweud wrth y cyngor drachefn a thro am gyflwr y ffordd.
    I have told the council time and time again about the condition of the road. 

ym milltir sgwr in the home area
    Ar l gweithio dramor, mae yn l yn ei filltir sgwr
    After working abroad, he is back in his home area.

parod ei thafodalways quick to reply 
  Mae Mrs Jones yn barod ei thafod pan fydden ni'n trafod gwleidyddiaeth.
  Mrs Jones is quick to reply when we discuss politics.

bob yn unone at a time
    Gadawodd y ffermwr y gwartheg drwy'r git i mewn i'r cae bob yn un.
    The farmer let the cattle go through the gate into the field one at a time.

a'i phen yn ei phlu - sad, depressed
  Mae Sioned wedi bod a'i phen yn ei phlu ers colli ei swydd.
  Sioned has been sad since loosing her job.

dod i rym - come into effect
   Mae'r taliadau newydd am barcio yn dod i rym adeg y Pasg.
   The new charges for parking come into effect at Easter.

gweithio rownd y rl - work round the clock
   Mae'r peirianwyr yn gweithio rownd y rl i atgyweirio'r bont.
   The engineers are working round the clock to repair the bridge.

tynnu tuag adref - to be nearly home
    Pan groeswn ni Bont Hafren rydyn ni'n tynnu tuag adref.
    When we cross the Severn Bridge we are nearly home.

ysu am glywed rhagor - dying to hear more
     Gwnes i ddarganfod am y sgandal ac rydw i'n ysu am glywed rhagor.
     I found out about the scandal and I am dying to hear more.

a bod yn fanwl - to be exact
      Poblogaeth y pentref yw 197, a bod yn fanwl.
      The population of the village is 197, to be exact.

yn anad dim - above all  
    Mae Dr Thomas yn feddyg da, ond yn anad dim mae'n garedig 
     wrth ei gleifion.
     Dr Thomas is a good doctor, but above all he is kind to his patients.

byw a bod yn -  spend all your time in
     Mae Dafydd yn byw a bod yn ymchwilio i hanes yr ardal.
     Dafydd spends all his time in researching the history of the area.

rhannu'r dorth yn deg - give everyone a fair share   
     Mae'r cwmni wedi bod yn broffidiol ac mae'r perchennog eisiau                     rhannu'r dorth yn deg rhwng y staff.
     The company has been profitable and the owner wants to give 
      each of the staff a fair share.

Welsh politics

The political map of Wales can be broadly divided into three regions.
In the west is the largely rural and Welsh speaking area which supports Plaid Cymru.
In the old coalfields and industrial areas of South and North East Wales, the Labour Party is dominant.
In Pembrokeshire, along the North Wales coast, and in the Welsh borderlands, the Conservative Party has a strong following.
Before 1998, Wales had no separate governing body and was entirely controlled by the Westminster parliament.
People in Wales voted for devolution in a referendum, and the Welsh Assembly was established in Cardiff Bay.
Members are elected through a system which includes proportional representation.
Since its formation, the majority of Welsh Assembly members have come from the Labour Party.
The Welsh Assembly was given reponsibility for decision making in areas which include Health and Education.
Differences have developed between Wales and England, for example in the charges for medical prescriptions, and the fees for students in Higher Education.
The Welsh Assembly has now been renamed the Welsh Parliament, and has increased its legal powers.
There have been different approaches to controlling the COVID epidemic in Wales in comparison to England.
Periods of lock-down began earlier in Wales, and requirements for mask wearing have continued longer.
Withdrawal from the European Union with Brexit continues to be a major issue in Welsh politics.
Wales, in the same way as the United Kingdom overall, voted in favour of Brexit by a very small majority.
Since the end of the Brexit transition period, a number of effects are being seen in Wales.
Exporting to the European Union has become more difficult for Welsh companies, and the port of Holyhead has seen a large reduction in ferry traffic.
Welsh farmers are concerned about the import of cheap meat from Australia, which could make their farms no longer profitable.
There is no certainty that the additional funding by the European Union for poorer areas of Wales will continue to be paid by the United Kingdom.
In parts of the Welsh community, there is a new feeling of confidence that Wales can successfuly govern its own affairs, rather than rely on the Westminster Government.
This has led to an increase in support for the `Yes Cymru` movement, which is campaigning for Wales to become an independent nation.

Translate the sentence:

The political map of Wales can be broadly divided into three regions.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)


The set of icons below was randomly selected, and has been used to write a story.

You are invited to translate the story into Welsh.


ambition  uchelgais  noun (m);  audition  clyweliad  noun (m);
active  gweithgar adjective;  object  gwrthrych  noun (m);
astonish  rhyfeddu  verb;  on location  ar leoliad;
guide  tywysydd  noun (m);  stalactite  stalactid  noun (m);
chase  erlid  verb;  strange  rhyfedd  adjective;
over-run  gor-redeg;

Aled is a drama student at a college in Cardiff.
His ambition is to become a film and television actor.
It was exciting, therefore, when his tutor said that the BBC were recruiting actors for minor parts in a television drama.
He quickly applied, and was called to an audition at the Cardiff Bay studios.
The production crew did not say what the programme was, but this was clearly an active role as he had to run around the studio, climbing and jumping over objects.
A week later he found out that he had been selected, and had to attend the studio for a rehearsal.
Aled was astonished when he discovered that he would be playing the part of a Cyberman in the famous television programme Dr Who.
He and about twenty other actors were fitted with their Cyberman costumes and shown by the director how they should walk and run in a robotic way.
They were told that filming would take place on location in a cave in South Wales which is normally open as a visitor attraction.
The plot of the episode involved the Cybermen having a secret underground base in the mountains, and they would fly in helicopters to attack government buildings.
Dr Who would arrive in his time machine, the Tardis, to stop the Cybermen carrying out their plan.
On the morning of the filming, the cave was closed to the public and the production crew and actors arrived early to begin work.
All was quiet when Chris, a member of the cave staff, arrived at lunchtime.
Chris is a guide who takes groups of visitors on tours of the cave.
He had heard that the BBC had been using the cave in the morning, but that he should open the gates for visitors in the normal way in the afternoon.
Families began to arrive by car, and Chris soon had enough people to begin the first tour.
He led them along the tunnels to a large brightly lit cave where they admired the stalactites and crystal pools.
At this moment there was a huge noise, and Dr Who and his assistant ran into the cave.
They were being chased by a large force of Cybermen, with their guns flashing as they fired at the Doctor.
Chris`s group of tourists had no idea what was happening.
Some stood motionless, and raised their hands into the air.
Others ran back terrified along the tunnel towards the entrance.
The strange situation ended when the director appeared, shouting `Cut, who are these people on my film set?".
The filming had over-run, and the message had not reached the manager in the office at the cave entrance.

Translate the sentence:

Aled is a drama student at a college in Cardiff.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)

Create your own story in Welsh

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Use of Welsh

Law examination questions

An examination paper is being prepared for law students.  Some questions are shown alongside.

You are invited to translate the questions into Welsh, so that the paper can be made available to candidates in their choice of language. 


cleaner  glanhawr  noun (m);  occupier  deiliad  noun (m);
ministry  gweinyddiaeth  noun (f);  edition  rhifyn  noun (m);
journalist  newyddiadurwr  noun (m);  commit  cyflawni  verb;
Caribbean  Carib  noun (m);  contract  cytundeb  noun (m);
hurricane  corwynt  noun (m);  charter  siarteru  verb;
as much  cystal;  current  cyfoes  adjective;
gather  ymgynnull  verb;  crowd  torf  noun (f);
placard  hysbyslen  noun (f);  confiscate  atafaelu  verb;
be involved with  ymwneud   verb;

Question 1
Jeff works as a cleaner for a firm which has a contract to clean the offices of civil servants in a government building in Cardiff. One evening when Jeff arrived to clean a particular office, he found the occupant had gone to a meeting leaving his computer switched on. The computer screen showed an e-mail from the Ministry of Defence in London, stating that the government had decided to close a factory in South Wales which makes military equipment for British troops.
Jeff read the e-mail and realised that the closure would mean the loss of several hundred jobs in the area. When he got home, he contacted a journalist at a local newspaper, who published the story in the next edition.

Consider whether any criminal offences have been committed by Jeff, the occupant of the office, and the journalist. 

Question 2  
Megabyte PLC is a company which supplies IT equipment. It has a contract to supply computer, telephone and security systems to Sun Dream, a large hotel company which is located on an island in the Caribbean. The easiest way for Megabyte to get its equipment and engineers to the island is by scheduled airline flight. However, a hurricane has damaged the airport and no planes can land for a month. It would cost three times as much for Megabyte to charter a boat to take the equipment and engineers to the island. Megabyte would lose money on the contract.

Advise Megabyte PLC as to whether they can now cancel or insist on renegotiating the contract. 

Question 3
Ann is an accountant and visits the office of Natural Way, a cosmetics company. She has a meeting with the managers to discuss the current year's accounts. When she leaves the building, a large crowd has gathered outside to protest. They hold placards claiming that Natural Way is involved in testing cosmetics on animals. Ann gets caught up in the crowd and is stopped by two police officers. One officer asks her what is in her bag. She tells them she is in a hurry and has no time to answer questions. They ask to search her bag, but she refuses to open it.  The police officers confiscate the bag and force her into a police van. An hour later, when her bag has been searched, she is released from the van and allowed to leave.

Advise Ann whether the police have used their stop and search powers lawfully.

Translate the sentence:

1: Jeff works as a cleaner for a firm which has a contract to clean the offices of civil servants in a government building in Cardiff.

Suggested translation: (a number of alternatives acceptable)


Write four or five sentences in Welsh to describe the picture:

Understanding Welsh

Read the article, then write sentences in Welsh to answer the following questions:

What work is Huw currently doing, and what would he like to do in the future?

Why has Huw chosen to study with the Open University?

What shortages of teachers in Wales are mentioned in the article?

When Rhys was training as a doctor, on what occasion does he mention speaking Welsh with a patient?

In what way was another patient helped by a Welsh speaking medical practitioner when he was a small child?

How did Mari make use of her Welsh language skills whilst training with a general practitioner?

Professional training to work through the medium of Welsh

Mae Huw yn dilyn llwybr newydd i ddod yn athro Gwyddoniaeth cyfrwng y Gymraeg gydar Brifysgol Agored. Er mwyn i Lywodraeth Cymru gyflawni ei charreg milltir nodedig o sicrhau miliwn o siaradwyr Cymraeg erbyn 2050, mae`n cynnig cymhellion ariannol cryf.

Mae Huw yn frwdfrydig am addysg Gymraeg, ac yn benodol dysgu Gwyddoniaeth trwyr iaith. Rwyf wrth fy modd i allu siarad Cymraeg yn fy mywyd pob dydd Rwyn mwynhau ceisio gwneud pynciau anodd yn hawdd iw deall ac i weld myfyrwyr yn dweud wow am wyddoniaeth.

Roedd Huw eisoes wedi sicrhau swydd yn Ysgol Gyfun fel technegydd Gwyddoniaeth. Yr oedd eisiau ymestyn ei yrfa i ddysgu gwyddoniaeth ar lefel uwch, ond nid oedd yn gallu rhoir gorau iw swydd er mwyn astudion llawn amser. Yn ffodus, trwy Dystysgrif Addysg i Raddedigion (TAR) newydd or Brifysgol Agored yng Nghymru, yr oedd modd i Michael cyfuno astudio gydai swydd bresennol a sicrhaur cymhwyster sydd ei angen i ddod yn athro cymwys. Y Brifysgol Agored oedd yr unig opsiwn oedd yn gwneud synnwyr i mi. Mae e mor hyblyg. Gallaf barhau gyda fy swydd fel technegydd gwyddoniaeth yn ogystal symud i mewn ir rl ddysgu newydd.

Maer llwybr cyflogedig yn ddelfrydol i rywun, fel Michael, syn gweithio mewn rl athro heb gymhwyso mewn ysgol. Bydd yr athro dan hyfforddiant yn astudio ar gyfer TAR o amgylch ei ddyletswyddau presennol yn yr ysgol, bydd yn cael cyflog am y gwaith hwnnw, a chaiff ei gostau astudio eu talu drwy grant hyfforddiant gan Lywodraeth Cymru.

Mae prinder athrawon cyfrwng Cymraeg yn ogystal ag athrawon Cymraeg fel pwnc uwchradd ledled Cymru. Er mwyn i Lywodraeth Cymru gyflawni ei charreg milltir nodedig o sicrhau miliwn o siaradwyr Cymraeg erbyn 2050, maen cynnig cymhellion ariannol cryf i bobl ddod yn athrawon Cymraeg neu Wyddoniaeth. Gan fod cymaint o alw, mae cyfleoedd cyflogaeth gwych ar gael i raddedigion newydd TAR cyfrwng Cymraeg a Chymraeg fel pwnc uwchradd.

Mewn maes arall, mae Llywodraeth Cymru yn hybu`r cyfraniad `amhrisiadwy` meddygon Cymraeg y dyfodol.

Mae myfyrwyr sydd am ddilyn gyrfa yn y maes meddygol - ac astudio drwy gyfrwng y Gymraeg - yn dweud fod y gallu i gyfathrebu yn Gymraeg yn gallu bod yn hanfodol ar gyfer lles cleifion. Yn l y Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol mae yna gynnydd cyson wedi bod yn y rhai sydd am ddilyn cyrsiau meddygol yn y Gymraeg.

Dywedodd un myfyriwr ail flwyddyn, Rhys, fod y cyfle i wneud y cwrs yn Gymraeg gyn golygu llawer iddo. "Rwy`n meddwl ei fod yn hollbwysig gallu siarad gyda chleifion ym mha bynnag iaith sy`n eu gwneud nhw`n gyfforddus, oherwydd eu gofal nhw sy`n bwysig ac rwy` am hwyluso hynny hyd eithaf fy ngallu. Yn ystod fy hyfforddiant rwy`n cofio ymweld mam newydd ar ward obstetreg oedd wrth ei bodd ein bod ni`n gallu siarad gyda hi yn ei mamiaith."

Dywedodd claf sy`n cael ei drin gan Rhys: "Cefais fy ngeni gyda nam ar fy ngolwg felly fel plentyn roedd rhaid i fi ymweld `r optometrydd i gael sbectol newydd bob cwpl o fisoedd. Roedden ni`n lwcus fod yr optegydd roedden ni`n ei ddefnyddio`n siarad Cymraeg oherwydd doeddwn i ddim yn gallu siarad Saesneg yn iawn tan i mi fod tua phump oed. "

Er 2015, mae myfyrwyr yn derbyn ysgoloriaeth gan y Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol i astudio o leiaf 30% o`u gradd yn Gymraeg. Yn l rheolwr datblygu`r Gymraeg yn Ysgol Feddygol y brifysgol, mae diddordeb yn cynyddu.

"Mae astudio meddygaeth drwy gyfrwng y Gymraeg a Saesneg yn golygu y gall myfyrwyr ymarfer y ddwy iaith wrth drin cleifion ar lawr gwlad. Cyfathrebu da yw`r pwyslais yma ac mae ymarfer y ddwy iaith gyda`i gilydd yn rhoi`r modd i fyfyrwyr ragori wrth wneud hynny."

Dywedodd myfyrwraig meddygol, Mari, fod gallu cyfathrebu yn Gymraeg gyda chleifion wedi bod yn hynod o werthfawr yn ystod y pandemig COVID.

"Oherwydd Covid, rydyn ni wedi gorfod mynd ar-lein i gwblhau ein lleoliadau gyda meddygon teulu, sydd wedi golygu siarad `efo cleifion ar alwad fideo. Roedd yn ddefnyddiol bod yn ddwyieithog yn ystod y sesiynau hyn gan fod rhai cleifion yn Gymry iaith gyntaf ac eraill Saesneg yn iaith gyntaf. Gall gweld cleifion ar-lein fod yn anodd felly roedd gallu siarad `efo nhw yn eu hiaith gyntaf yn gymorth mawr," meddai.

"Os mai`r Gymraeg ydy iaith gyntaf y claf, mae`n golygu llawer os ydyn nhw`n gallu cyfathrebu efo`r meddygon yn Gymraeg gan fod hyn yn rhoi cyfle llawn a theg iddyn nhw fynegi eu hanghenion a`u pryderon."


Story board

A story is outlined below as a series of numbered notes and pictures. You are invited to write the story in Welsh so that it could be displayed as an on-line blog or news item. If necessary, please feel free to add any additional details to develop the story.

Visiting Swansea


Swansea is the second largest city in Wales and has a wide variety of shops and restaurants. It is an important transport centre, with train and bus connections to much of south Wales.


Swansea docks were important for exporting coal, but this trade gradually declined. The docks finally closed in 1969 and the area became derelict. Over the following twenty years, plans were put in place to develop a marina. New lock gates and bridges were installed, and the area has developed as a very attractive place to visit, or to live.


Adjacent to the marina is the National Waterfront Museum. This museum focuses on telling the story of Swansea docks and the region's industries. Among the interesting exhibits is a demonstration of how railway trucks were lifted and tipped to load coal onto ships.


The old Helwick lightship is on display outside the museum. During its working life the ship was moored above the Helwick sandbank in the Severn Estuary to warn ships of the danger. The lightship had no engine, and was towed into position by a tug boat. It had a platform to allow a helicopter to land when changing the crew.


The museum has a working replica of Trevithick's locomotive which made the first steam railway journey in Wales, from the Penydarren iron works to the canal wharf at Abercynon. On particular dates, the locomotive runs along a short section of track in the grounds of the museum.


From Swansea marina, a sandy beach extends for five miles to the coastal village of Mumbles. Swansea Bay is popular with surfers. The poet Dylan Thomas lived in Swansea, and he liked to spend time in the public houses in Mumbles. The village has a lighthouse, and a Victorian pier.


On the hillside above Mumbles village is Oystermouth Castle. The oldest parts of the castle date back to the 12th century. The castle was the home of the Norman lords of Gower, and was frequently attacked by the local Welsh.


People living in Swansea can easily travel to the countryside. On the northern edge of the city is Penllergare. This Victorian estate provides woodland walks around the river and two lakes.

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